Dowling One Name Study

A-V148 Haplogroup

A-V148 Haplogroup

Male 235000 BC to 138000 BC - DECEASED

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  • Name A-V148,  
    Title Haplogroup 
    Born 235000 BC to 138000 BC  Central Northwest Africa Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Reference Number 100 
    Died DECEASED 
    Person ID I100  Dowling Haplogroups
    Last Modified 13 Oct 2019 

    Children 
    +1. B-M42,   d. DECEASED  [natural]
    Last Modified 13 Oct 2019 
    Family ID F51  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • In human genetics, Haplogroup A is the lineage of all human males. Because of a mistake in phylogeny, it used to refer to a group of y-chromosome lineages that were later found to be among the first to branch off from the root of the human y-chromosome phylogeny, and are now referred to as "haplogroup A proper" or "haplogroup A(xBT)". No mutations define Haplogroup A, but since this nomenclature only deals with Homo sapiens sapiens, the "Y-chromosomal Adam" can be considered its founder.

      Origin

      Haplogroup A is common among Khoisan people.
      Many proposals for haplogroup A's origin suggest it was associated with the ancestral population of Southern Africa's hunter-gatherers. This is because Haplogroup A lineages are frequent among the San people. In addition, the most basal mitochondrial DNA lineages are also largely restricted to the San.

      However the A lineages of Southern Africa are sub-clades of A lineages found in other parts of Africa. This suggests that A lineages arrived in Southern Africa from elsewhere.[3] The two most basal lineages of Haplogroup A, A0 and A1, have been detected in West Africa, Northwest Africa and Central Africa. Cruciani et al. suggest that these lineages may have emerged somewhere in between Central and Northwest Africa, though such an interpretation is still preliminary due to the incomplete geographic coverage of African y-chromosomes.[1]

      Initial studies reported that Haplogroup A lineages emerged around 60,000 years ago which was significantly more recent than TMRCA for mitochondrial DNA lineages which coalesce to between 150-200kya. But Cruciani et al. 2011 pushed back the root of the Y-chromosome tree to 142,000 years ago.[1]

      In November 2012, a new study by Scozzari et al. reinforced "the hypothesis of an origin in the north-western quadrant of the African continent for the A1b haplogroup, and, together with recent findings of ancient Y-lineages in central-western Africa, provide new evidence regarding the geographical origin of human MSY diversity".[4]

      [edit] Distribution

      Haplogroup A(xBT) is largely restricted to parts of Africa, though a handful of cases have been reported in Europe and Western Asia. The clade achieves its highest modern frequencies in the Bushmen hunter-gatherer populations of Southern Africa, followed closely by many Nilotic groups in Eastern Africa. However, haplogroup A's oldest sub-clades are exclusively found in Central-Northwest Africa, where it, and consequently Y-chromosomal Adam, is believed to have originated about 140,000 years ago.[1] The clade has also been observed at notable frequencies in certain populations in Ethiopia, as well as some Pygmy groups in Central Africa.

      Haplogroup A is less common among Niger-Congo speakers, who largely belong to the E1b1a clade. Haplogroup E in general is believed to have originated in Northeast Africa,[5] and was later introduced to West Africa from where it spread around 5,000 years ago to Central, Southern and Southeastern Africa with the Bantu expansion.[6][7] According to Wood et al. (2005) and Rosa et al. (2007), such relatively recent population movements from West Africa changed the pre-existing population Y chromosomal diversity in Central, Southern and Southeastern Africa, replacing the previous haplogroups in these areas with the now dominant E1b1a lineages. Traces of ancestral inhabitants, however, can be observed today in these regions via the presence of the Y DNA haplogroups A-M91 and B-M60 that are common in certain relict populations, such as the Mbuti Pygmies and the Khoisan.[8][9][10]

      Haplogroup A frequencies

      Africa
      Study population Freq.
      (in %)
      [9] Tsumkwe San (Namibia) 66%
      [9] Nama (Namibia) 64
      [11] Dinka (Sudan) 62
      [11] Shilluk (Sudan) 53
      [11] Nuba (Sudan) 46
      [12] Khoisan 44
      [13][14] Ethiopian Jews 41
      [9][13] !Kung/Sekele ~40
      [11] Borgu (Sudan) 35
      [11] Nuer (Sudan) 33
      [11] Fur (Sudan) 31
      [9] Maasai (Kenya) 27
      [15] Nara (Eritrea) 20
      [11] Masalit (Sudan) 19
      [9][16] Amhara (Ethiopia) ~16
      [12] Ethiopians 14
      [17] Bantu (Kenya) 14
      [9] Mandara (Cameroon) 14
      [11] Hausa (Sudan) 13
      [13] Khwe (South Africa) 12
      [13] Fulbe (Cameroon) 12
      [9] Dama (Namibia) 11
      [16] Oromo (Ethiopia) 10
      [15] Kunama (Eritrea) 10
      [9] South Semitic (Ethiopia) 10
      [17] Arabs (Egypt) 3

      In a composite sample of 3551 African men, Haplogroup A had a frequency of 5.4%.[18] The highest frequencies of haplogroup A have been reported among the Khoisan of Southern Africa, Beta Israel, and Nilo-Saharans from Sudan.

      [edit] Africa -Central

      Haplogroup A3b2-M13 has been observed in populations of northern Cameroon (2/9 = 22% Tupuri,[9] 4/28 = 14% Mandara,[9] 2/17 = 12% Fulbe[13]) and eastern DRC (2/9 = 22% Alur,[9] 1/18 = 6% Hema,[9] 1/47 = 2% Mbuti[9]).

      Haplogroup A-M91(xA1a-M31, A2-M6/M14/P3/P4, A3-M32) has been observed in the Bakola people of southern Cameroon (3/33 = 9%).[9]

      Without testing for any subclade, haplogroup A Y-DNA has been observed in samples of several populations of Gabon, including 9% (3/33) of a sample of Baka, 3% (1/36) of a sample of Ndumu, 2% (1/46) of a sample of Duma, 2% (1/57) of a sample of Nzebi, and 2% (1/60) of a sample of Tsogo.[7]

      [edit] Africa -Eastern

      Haplogroup A3b2-M13 is common among the Southern Sudanese (53%),[11] especially the Dinka Sudanese (61.5%).[19] Haplogroup A3b2-M13 also has been observed in another sample of a South Sudanese population at a frequency of 45% (18/40), including 1/40 A3b2a-M171.[12] Haplogroup A also has been reported in 14.6% (7/48) of an Amhara sample,[16] 10.3% (8/78) of an Oromo sample,[16] 13.6% (12/88) of another sample from Ethiopia,[12] and 41% of a sample of the Beta Israel (Cruciani et al. 2002), and important percentages are also shared by Bantus in Kenya (14%, Luis et al. 2004) and Iraqw in Tanzania (3/43 = 7.0% (Luis et al. 2004) to 1/6 = 17% (Knight et al. 2003)).

      [edit] Africa -Northern

      The subclade A1 has been observed in Moroccan Berbers, while the subclade A3b2 has been observed in approximately 3% of Egyptian males.

      [edit] Africa -Southern

      One study has found haplogroup A in samples of various Khoisan-speaking tribes with frequency ranging from 10% to 70%.[9] Surprisingly, this particular haplogroup was not found in a sample of the Hadzabe from Tanzania, a population traditionally considered an ancient remnant of Khoisans due to the presence of click consonants in their language.

      [edit] Eurasia

      Haplogroup A has been observed as A1 in European men in England. As A3b2, it has been observed with low frequency in Asia Minor, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean islands, among Aegean Turks, Sardinians, Palestinians, Jordanians, Yemenites, and Omanis. Without testing for any subclade, haplogroup A has been observed in a sample of Greeks from Mitilini on the Aegean island of Lesvos[20] and in samples of Portuguese from southern Portugal, central Portugal, and Madeira.[21] The authors of one study have reported finding what appears to be haplogroup A in 3.1% (2/65) of a sample of Cypriots,[22] though they have not definitively excluded the possibility that either of these individuals may belong to haplogroup B or haplogroup C.